By Abisha S S
A Smartphone is a cellular telephone with an integrated computer and other features not originally associated with telephones such as an operating system, web browsing, and the ability to run software applications. A smart phone is a portable device that combines mobile telephone and computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitate wider software, internet (including web browsing over mobile broadband), and multimedia functionality (including music, video, cameras, and gaming), alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and text messaging. Smart phones typically contain a number of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuit (IC) chips, include various sensors that can be leveraged by pre-included and third-party software (such as a magnetometer, proximity sensors, barometer, gyroscope, accelerometer and more), and support wireless communications protocols.
Early smart phones were marketed primarily towards the enterprise market, attempting to bridge the functionality of standalone personal digital assistant (PDA) devices with support for cellular telephony, but were limited by their bulky form, short battery life, slow analog cellular networks, and the immaturity of wireless data services. These issues were eventually resolved with the exponential scaling and miniaturization of MOS transistors down to sub-micron levels (Moore’s law), the improved lithium-ion battery, faster digital mobile data networks (Edholm’s law), and more mature software platforms that allowed mobile device ecosystems to develop independently of data providers.
Phones that made effective use of any significant data connectivity were still rare outside Japan until the introduction of the Danger Hiptop in 2002, which saw moderate success among U.S. consumers as the T-Mobile Sidekick. Later, in the mid-2000s, business users in the U.S. started to adopt devices based on Microsoft’s Windows Mobile, and then BlackBerry smart phones from Research In Motion. American users popularized the term “Crack Berry” in 2006 due to the BlackBerry’s addictive nature. In the U.S., the high cost of data plans and relative rarity of devices with Wi-Fi capabilities that could avoid cellular data network usage kept adoption of smart phones mainly to business professionals and “early adopters.”
Outside the U.S. and Japan, Nokia was seeing success with its smart phones based on Symbian, originally developed by Psion for their personal organizers, and it was the most popular smart phone OS in Europe during the middle to late 2000s. Initially, Nokia’s Symbian smart phones were focused on business with the Eseries, similar to Windows Mobile and BlackBerry devices at the time. From 2006 onwards, Nokia started producing consumer-focused smart phones, popularized by the entertainment-focused Nseries. Until 2010, Symbian was the world’s most widely used smart phone operating system.
The touch screen personal digital assistant (PDA)-derived nature of adapted operating systems like Palm OS, the “Pocket PC” versions of what was later Windows Mobile, and the UIQ interface that was originally designed for pen-based PDAs on Symbian OS devices resulted in some early smart phones having stylus-based interfaces. These allowed for virtual keyboards and/or handwriting input, thus also allowing easy entry of Asian characters.
By the mid-2000s, the majority of smart phones had a physical QWERTY keyboard. Most used a “keyboard bar” form factor, like the BlackBerry line, Windows Mobile smart phones, Palm Treos, and some of the Nokia Eseries. A few hid their full physical QWERTY keyboard in a sliding form factor, like the Danger Hiptop line. Some even had only a numeric keypad using T9 text input, like the Nokia Nseries and other models in the Nokia Eseries. Resistive touch screens with stylus-based interfaces could still be found on a few smart phones, like the Palm Treos, which had dropped their handwriting input after a few early models that were available in versions with Graffiti instead of a keyboard.
FUTURE SMARTPHONE OF 2021
(Pocket-lint) – With the pace of smart phone evolution moving so fast, there’s always something waiting in the wings. No sooner have you spied the latest handset, that there’s anticipation for the next big thing.
Here we look at those phones that haven’t yet launched the upcoming phones for 2021. We’ll be updating this list on a regular basis, with those device rumors we think are credible and exciting.
As for already-launched handsets, we’ve rounded up the best smart phones for 2021 elsewhere – those we consider to be the best across all platforms. If your budget is a little smaller, there are also our budget smart phones for under £200 feature – and there’s a mid-range roundup up to £400 as well.
The upcoming generation of phones
Before we dive into the detail, here are some of the anticipated handsets for 2021:
- One Plus Nord CE 5G
- Huawei P50 Pro
- Honor 50
- Google Pixel 5a 5G
- Samsung Galaxy Z Flip 3
- Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 3
- Nokia X50
- Samsung Galaxy Fold E
- Samsung Galaxy S21 FE
- Apple iPhone 13
- Apple iPhone SE 2 Plus
- Google Pixel 6
- Folding Google Pixel
- Huawei Mate 50 Pro
- Oppo folding phone
IMPACTS OF SMARTPHONE ON SOCIETY
Smart phones are popular among people for the applications they offer to users. Smart phones make communications with people quite easier. People enjoy a lot of benefits in various forms of their daily work. Some advantages smart phones provide – better means of communication, learning options to users, great exposure to the latest things, ways to personality development, simple ways to access applications, ideas to succeed in business, platforms to grow their applications and more.
Impact on Business: Smart phones create new dimensions for business. It is not only the smart phone vendors enjoying business but also created a new domain for app development companies, Internet service providers, and other related sectors.
Impact on Education: Smart phones provide a unique way to improve the quality of education. The use of the Internet has become a part of life for every student. Internet together with Smart phones – provide an alternative channel to deliver education services and distance education.
Health Impact: According to surveys, more than 10 million users in the USA use Smartphone to search for health information and facilities. 27% of the users use smart phones for online activities. Today there are several apps to manage prescriptions, promote alternative treatment options, provide price comparison, and validate prescriptions. Today several apps are available to track exercise, diet and blood pressure – enabling smart phones to play a key role in the health sector.
Psychological Impact: Smart phones are said to reduce stress in busy work life. I today’s busy schedules mobile phones provide a means to interact with friends and families as an when they get time. The smart use of Smartphone increases your brain’s functioning helping to stay active. Instead of using Smartphone only for entertainment it could be used to access useful information, for example, access the news headlines, latest technology updates, and more.
Social Impact: Social life has been drastically changed with the introduction of smart phones and this domain has encountered most of the impact from the use of smart phones. Smart phones play an important role in the integration process of people with special needs, elderly age and with some sort of disabilities.
SOCIAL IMPACT OF SMARTPHONE
As stated by the Business Insider, mobile subscribers in Nigeria are about 150 million and the numbers of internet users are about 97.2 million19. It is estimated that by 2019, there would be 23.3 million as compared to the 20.5 million20 in 2018. The impact of advanced communication technologies have significantly influenced the way of doing things and the concept of the global village has been reinforced with the advent of smart phones as people now communicate with others and it seems like they are close geographically. Smart phones allow people to maintain continuous communication without interruption of movements and distances. They can be used as phonebooks, appointment calendars, internet portals, gaming devices, in addition they are capable of meeting cognitive as well affective needs. The impact of smart phones can be felt in many areas-education, communication, business/economy, health among others. In the health sector, parents can now easily register the birth of their children and allowing the government to accurately plan interventions like vaccination schedules. In addition, health workers can access health records, schedule appointments and also issue automated text reminders to parents about vaccine clinics. On the economic side, with the introduction of smart phones and especially in 2008 when the first Apple iPhone was made available, the number of smart phone users have experienced a remarkable increase which is estimated will also contribute to the global economy24 by 2020. In addition, it has eased the burden of doing business as unnecessary expenses can be avoided for example business executives having to travel long distances to seal a deal now such deals can be discussed using virtual presence.
Students use the smart phones to expand their learning experience. Smart phones and tablets have become part of students’ daily lives and are used as assistive tools in education. The importance of technological advancements in expanding students’ horizon especially as it affects academics was expounded citing results of a past study, it was discovered that majority of students and teachers in that institution use smart phones not just as a form of communication but also to find information related to their learning activities while also accessing social networking sites related with the necessary knowledge.
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF SMARTPHONE (On Your Everyday Life)
There is no denying the fact that smart phones have drastically altered our everyday lives. From our working and entertainment habits to the way we communicate, socialize and organize things, everything has changed.
Here are some of the major positive effects of mobile phones on our everyday life:
Improved Communication: The key reason why smart phones were invented was to fulfill one of the basic human needs i.e. to stay connected. Needless to say, the technology has done wonders for humanity. By enabling us to connect with anyone, anywhere, and at any time, smart phones have completely revolutionized the telecommunication industry.
Help Us Stay Organized: With multi-tasking becoming the norm of modern day life, it often becomes difficult to keep track of everything. This problem can be resolved if you pay a little heed to the small device in your pocket or bag. There are many mobile phone apps that can help you manage things and stay organized. No more need to keep a diary to take notes and to mark important dates and events; this can be done on your smart phone.
Smart phones also allow you to store documents, send emails and memos, and even to make presentations; it’s like your mini office. All in all, the small device helps you stay sorted and in control of everything.
Everyday Chores Made Easier: Thanks to the technological advancements, our lives have now become a lot easier. There are many mobile phone apps that have made carrying out everyday chores a lot easier. No more waiting in long queues to pay the utility bills or stressing about finding a reliable travel agent to book hotels for your trips, you can do it all through smart phone apps.
Ensure Stress-free Travelling: Whether you are going to a new country or to a new city, finding directions is no longer a problem. With Google Map, you can now easily travel to unknown locations without the fear of getting lost. Another advantage of smart phones is that they can be used to find nearby restaurants, gas stations, grocery stores, malls, salons, or any other thing that you want. Simply put, smart phones have made navigation a lot simpler and easier.
Help in Emergencies: Smart phones offer great help to deal with emergency situations. It enables a person to call for help when in trouble, but also allows others to trace a lost person. In case of natural disasters or large scale emergencies, the authorities can track mobile phone signals to track the location of injured or trapped people.
An example of the effective use of cell phone technology can be seen in Japan. Since earthquakes are common in Japan, cell phone companies send free notifications to their users, whenever there is a warning of a natural disaster. This helps people to take preventive measures and reduce the chances of loss of lives.
Increased Awareness: By helping us stay connected with each other and with the world, mobile phones help people to stay up-to-date on the political, economic, and social issues affecting the world. The availability of information also contributes to increasing awareness about certain issues that was previously lacking. For example, technological advancements have really increased awareness about mental health. Due to the increased awareness, people can now empathize with those suffering from mental health issues rather than simply labeling them, as happened in the past. In view of the widespread usage and positive effects of mobile phones, it wouldn’t be wrong to say that smart phones have also become our, diaries, offices, televisions
BENEFITS OF SMARTPHONE
After only about a decade, smart phone technology is so successful that businesses and employees have trouble imagining a day without them. Besides making phone calls, nearly all smart phones today can natively provide directions through GPS, take pictures, play music and keep track of appointments and contacts. Through the installation of apps, the list of possible smart phone uses multiplies by tens of thousands and grows longer every day. Your business can make good use of this rapidly evolving technology.
- Differing Communication Options
Old school cell phones can call and text. While this can get your message across, smart phones allow you multiple ways of communicating with your staff, customers and suppliers. Not only can they call, text and IM, these communication tools give you access to email, immediate photo sharing, video calling and video conferencing. You can chair a staff meeting from anywhere you have phone service! You can also remain connected through social networking sites like Twitter, Face book and LinkedIn.
- Exploring the Web
How many times each day do you consult the internet for news or other information essential to your business? At first, web browsing happened at a desk in an office, where a wire could reach a PC. Wireless access and laptops moved the web to pretty much anywhere in the house or office, but smart phone technology, including broadband wireless, has sent the web onto the subway, into cars and to the park — wherever there is cellular coverage. What’s more, the latest smart phones can display nearly as much of the internet as PCs, including business news sites and streaming high definition videos.
- From Several Devices to One
Once, you might have needed an entire bag to carry around all the devices needed for daily business activities. You would need your pager, cell phone and your PDA. You might also need an MP3 player, an e-book reader, a camera and a GPS device. Through miniaturized hardware that packs a processor, speakers, a camera, a GPS receiver, a Wi-Fi adapter and a high definition touch-sensitive screen into a cell-phone-sized device, a smart phone puts all of this functionality into your pocket. One of your workers can easily search for directions to a client’s business, read a sales flier before a meeting starts and transmit an ad sale to your office from via a mobile hotspot.
- Availability of Many Applications
The late twentieth-century saw an explosion of computer applications. The early twenty-first century brings hundreds of thousands of smart phone apps. The sensors built into the smart phone as well as its portability and programmability have made it a device with almost limitless applications. Beyond the tons of games (your workers do need a break now and then), there are numerous productivity apps available to save a good idea when inspiration strikes, organize meeting notes, and hosts of other possibilities. You and your staff can keep fit with health and fitness apps to track miles walked and the calories you’ve consumed. Internet radio and podcasting apps put you in touch with whole new worlds of audio. Compass apps, leveling apps and flashlights provide handheld utilities. Apps that let you paint, modify photos or create music tap into your creativity.
ADVANTAGES OF SMARTPHONE
Smart phones have radically changed people’s lives. Before people have to take extra effort in sending messages or they buy a camera just to take pictures. Today, these functionalities are integrated into one, rectangular – revolutionary technology that keeps getting smarter and smarter every day. Since then, smart phones are never found out of reach from people. According to statistics, almost half of the population owns a smart phone. In a 2016 survey conducted by the Bank of America, 96% of the millennials aged 18 to 24 years old said that smart phones are very important for them. 93% of them even stated that smart phones are more important than deodorant and toothbrush. The survey also found out that an individual checks his or her smart phone every 6.5 minutes.
Everything has its advantages and disadvantages. In the section, let us know how we can benefit from smart phones and at the same time, what the disadvantages of smart phone technology are.
Instant Communication: Smart phones evolved from the earliest communication devices. Thus, it has been created to primarily improve people’s way of communicating with each other. The advent of smart phone technology modernized communications. It has paved the way to SMS, text messaging, call, video chat, and apps that allow people to instantly communicate to everyone across the globe.
Camera: In this “selfie” generation, the camera is so important. It saves people from buying a separate digital camera to take photos and videos. Especially now that the millennials are fond of posting photos in the social media. According to a 2014 Comtech study, the camera ranked third as the most important consideration for consumers in buying a smart phone. With this, smart phone giants make sure their phones are equipped with the best camera.
Entertainment: Smart phones are also viewed as a source of entertainment – games, music, movies, and books. Based on the 2016 statistics, there are more than 63.7 million people in North America use smart phones for gaming. Moreover, users can listen to their favorite music with iTunes and Spotify, among others.
GPS: Most smart phones now are equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS). This technology allows people to locate certain addresses and area all around the world. This helped improved not just communication, but most especially, transportation.
Privacy: With smart phones, you can do whatever you want without anyone knowing it. You can snap photos of yourself and secure your photo library with a password. You can also send messages to your loved ones without the fear of anyone knowing it. Online transactions can also be done through smart phones.
Table 1: Number of Smartphone & Mobile phone users worldwide (Billion)
|Year||Smart Phones||Mobile Phones|
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