The name corona virus is derived from Latin, the meaning of Corona is crown or wreath which refers to the characteristic appearance reminiscent of a crown or a solar corona around the virions. The scientific name for corona virus is ortho corona virinae or Corona virinae. Corona virus belongs to the family of Corona viridae. Corona viruses are a group of related viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, corona viruses cause respiratory tract infections that can be mild, such as some cases of the common cold and others that can be dangerous, Covid-19 is closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which swept around the world in 2002 to 2003. That virus infected around 8,000 people and killed about 800 but it soon ran itself out, largely because most of those infected were seriously ill so it was easier to control.Another corona virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), cases of which have been occurring sporadically since it first emerged in 2012 – there have been around 2,500 cases and nearly 900 deaths. Covid-19 is different to these two other corona viruses in that the spectrum of disease is broad, with around 80 per cent of cases leading to a mild infection.The recent outbreak of corona virus is believed to have occurred in a seafood market and also traded illegal wildlife in the central Chinese city of Wuhan. On February 7, Chinese researchers said the virus could have spread from an infected animal species to humans through illegally-trafficked pangolins, which are prized in Asia for food and medicine. Scientists have pointed to either bats or snakes as possible sources of the virus. Chinese health authorities and the WHO are still investigating the outbreak of the recent corona virus.
Where it is Emerged
The new coronavirus (Covid-19) has spread to nearly every country in the world since it first emerged in China at the beginning of the year. More than 467,000 people are known to be infected and more than 21,000 deaths have been recorded – including 477 in the UK. There may also be many people carrying the disease and displaying no symptoms, making it even harder to control. So far, around 20 per cent of Covid-19 cases have been classed as “severe” and the current death rate varies between 0.7 per cent and 3.4 per cent depending on the location and, crucially, access to good hospital care.China office heard the first reports of a previously-unknown virus behind a number of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, a city in Eastern China with a population of over 11 million.What started as an epidemic mainly limited to China has now become a truly global pandemic. There have now been over 451,355 confirmed cases and 20,499 deaths, according the John Hopkins University Covid-19 dashboard, which collates information from national and international health authorities. The disease has been detected in more 196 countries and territories, with Italy, the US and Spain experiencing the most widespread outbreaks outside of China. In the UK, there have been 8,077 confirmed cases and 422 deaths as of March 24. The Chinese government responded to the initial outbreak by placing Wuhan and nearby cities under a de-facto quarantine encompassing roughly 50 million people in Hubei province. This quarantine is now slowly being lifted, as authorities watch to see whether cases will rise again. In Italy, which is experiencing the largest outbreak outside of China, the government took the unprecedented step of extending a lock down to the entire country, shutting cinemas, theaters, gyms, discos and pubs and banning funerals and weddings. In the UK, the government has shut pubs, restaurants, bars cafes and all non-essential shops.
2. Structure of COVID-19
Virus particles when viewed under two-dimensional due to the surface being covered in club-shaped protein spikes. Corona viruses vary significantly in risk factor. Some can kill more than 30% of those infected (Virus particles when viewed under two-dimensional transmission electron microscopy, due to the surface being covered in club-shaped protein spikes. Corona viruses vary significantly in risk factor. Some can kill more than 30% of those infected (such as MERS-CoV), and some are relatively harmless, such as the common cold. Corona viruses can cause pneumonia (either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia) and bronchitis (either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis).
2.1. How does this corona virus cause infection?
The virus is spread through droplets transmitted into the air from coughing or sneezing, which people nearby can take in through their nose, mouth or eyes. The viral particles in these droplets travel quickly to the back of your nasal passages and to the mucous membranes in the back of your throat, attaching to a particular receptor in cells, beginning there. Corona virus particles have spiked proteins sticking out from their surfaces, and these spikes hook onto cell membranes, allowing the virus’s genetic material to enter the human cell.
The common symptoms of COVID-19 are
- dry cough
- shortness of breath
Some patients may have headaches and pains, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat or diarrhea. These symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually. Some people doesn’t have any symptoms and health issues. Symptoms in other species may vary. In chickens, they cause an upper respiratory tract disease, while in cows and pigs they cause diarrhea. Most of the people (about 80%) recover from this disease without needing special treatment. Around 1 out of every 6 people who gets COVID-19 becomes seriously ill and develops difficulty in breathing. Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like high blood pressure, heart problems or diabetes, are more likely to develop serious illness. People with fever, cough and difficulty breathing should seek medical attention.
4. Transmission of COVID-19
The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow). Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Older people and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.
The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person.
- Between people who are in close contact with one another (within about 6 feet).
- Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.
4.2. Spread the virus without being sick
People are thought to be most contagious when they are most symptomatic (the sickest). Some spread might be possible before people show symptoms; there have been reports of this occurring with this new corona virus, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.
4.3.Spread from contact with contaminated surfaces or objects
It may be possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.
5. Basic protective measures against the new corona-virus
- Frequently wash their hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or warm water and soap.
- Cover their mouth and nose with a flexed elbow or tissue when sneezing or coughing.
- Avoid close contact with anyone who has a fever or cough.
- Seek early medical help if they have a fever, cough and difficulty breathing, and share their travel history with healthcare providers.
- Avoid direct, unprotected contact with live animals and surfaces in contact with animals when visiting live markets in affected areas.
- Avoid eating raw or under cooked animal products and exercise care when handling raw meat, milk or animal organs to avoid cross-contamination with uncooked foods.
5.1 Wash your hands frequently
Regularly and thoroughly clean our hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water. Washing our hands with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand rub kills viruses that may be on your hands.
5.2 Maintain social distancing
Maintain at least 1 meter (3 feet) distance between yourself and anyone who is coughing or sneezing. When someone coughs or sneezes they spray small liquid droplets from their nose or mouth which may contain virus. If you are too close, you can breathe in the droplets, including the COVID-19 virus if the person coughing has the disease.
5.3 Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth
Hands touch many surfaces and can pick up viruses. Once contaminated, hands can transfer the virus to your eyes, nose or mouth. From there, the virus can enter your body and can make you sick.
5.4 Practice respiratory hygiene
Make sure you, and the people around you, follow good respiratory hygiene. This means covering your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze. Then dispose of the used tissue immediately.Droplets spread virus. By following good respiratory hygiene you protect the people around you from viruses such as cold, flu and COVID-19.
5.5 If you have fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical care early
Stay home if you feel unwell. If you have a fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention and call in advance. Follow the directions of your local health authority.National and local authorities will have the most up to date information on the situation in your area. Calling in advance will allow your health care provider to quickly direct you to the right health facility. This will also protect you and help prevent spread of viruses and other infections.
5.6 Avoid unprotected contact with farm or wild animals.
Some corona viruses that infect animals have become able to infect humans and then spread between people, but this is rare. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) are examples of diseases caused by corona viruses that originated in animals and spread to people. This is what is suspected to have happened with the virus that caused the current outbreak of COVID-19. However, we do not know the exact source of this virus. Public health officials and partners are working hard to identify the source of COVID-19. The first infections were linked to a live animal market, but the virus is now spreading from person to person. The coronavirus most similar to the virus causing COVID-19 is the one that causes SARS.
How to stay healthy around animals
In the United States, there is no evidence to suggest that any animals, including pets, livestock, or wildlife, might be a source of COVID-19 infection at this time. However, because all animals can carry germs that can make people sick, it’s always a good idea to practice healthy habits around pets and other animals.
- Wash your hands after handling animals, their food, waste, or supplies.
- Practice good pet hygiene and clean up after pets properly.
- Take pets to the veterinarian regularly and talk to your veterinarian if you have questions about your pet’s health.
5.7 Individuals that are immune compromised should avoid public gatherings.
Healthcare workers caring for infected individuals should utilize contact and airborne precautions to include PPE such as N95 or FFP3 masks, eye protection, gowns, and gloves to prevent transmission of the pathogen.
There is no specific antiviral treatment recommended for COVID-19, and no vaccine is currently available. The treatment is symptomatic, and oxygen therapy represents the major treatment intervention for patients with severe infection. Mechanical ventilation may be necessary in cases of respiratory failure refractory to oxygen therapy, whereas hemodynamic support is essential for managing septic shock. In recent days, China has announced the first animal tests, and researchers from the University of Queensland in Australia have also announced that, after completing the three-week in vitro study, they are moving on to animal testing. Furthermore, in the U.S., the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has announced that a phase 1 trial has begun for a novel corona virus immunization in Washington state.
Preventing corona virus
Canadians should continue to think ahead about the actions that they can take to stay healthy and prevent the spread of COVID-19 in Canada, including:
- Being prepared in case you or a family member become ill
- Following the latest travel advice from federal and provincial public health leaders:
- Avoiding all non-essential travel, including cruise ships
- Self-isolating, and monitoring for symptoms (cough, fever or difficulty breathing) for 14 days if you have travelled outside of Canada
- Reducing contact with others by following the guidance for self-monitoring, self-isolating, or isolating
- Practicing social distancing and proper hygiene
- Wearing masks, if necessary
If you are a healthy individual, the use of a mask is not recommended for preventing the spread of COVID-19.Wearing a mask when you are not ill may give a false sense of security. There is a potential risk of infection with improper mask use and disposal. They also need to be changed frequently.However, your health care provider may recommend you wear a mask if you are experiencing symptoms of COVID-19 while you are seeking or waiting for care. In this instance, masks are an appropriate part of infection prevention and control measures. The mask acts as a barrier and helps stop the tiny droplets from spreading you when you cough or sneeze.
Based upon available information to date, those at high-risk for severe illness from COVID-19 include:
- People aged 65 years and older.
- People who live in a nursing home or long-term care facility.
Other high-risk conditions could include
- People with chronic lung disease or moderate to severe asthma
- People who have heart disease with complications
- People who are immunocompromised including cancer treatment
- People of any age with severe obesity (body mass index [(BM]I)≥40) or certain underlying medical conditions, particularly if not well controlled, such as those with diabetes, renal failure, or liver disease might also be at risk
- People who are pregnant should be monitored since they are known to be at risk with severe viral illness, however, to date data on COVID-19 has not shown increased risk
If you are at higher risk of getting very sick from COVID-19, you should: stock up on supplies; take everyday precautions to keep space between yourself and others; when you go out in public, keep away from others who are sick; limit close contact and wash your hands often; and avoid crowds, cruise travel, and non-essential travel. If there is an outbreak in your community, stay home as much as possible. Watch for symptoms and emergency signs. If you get sick, stay home and call your doctor. More information on how to prepare, what to do if you get sick, and how communities and caregivers can support those at higher risk is available on People at Risk for Serious Illness from COVID-19.
COVID-19 World summary 27/03/2020
|Corona virus cases||5,32,263|
|Countries||Total Cases||New Cases||Total Deaths||New Deaths||Total Recovered||Active Cases|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||191||3||2||186|
|Trinidad and Tobago||65||1||64|
|Isle of Man||25||25|
|Antigua and Barbuda||7||7|
|British Virgin Islands||2||2|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||2||2|
|Turks and Caicos||2||2|
|Papua New Guinea||1||1|
|St. Vincent Grenadines||1||1|
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